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Binghamton University

Binghamton University


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Binghamton University - one of the four university centers within the State University of New York - is located in the town of Vestal, one mile west of the city of Binghamton.Binghamton University had its beginning in 1946, as Triple Cities College, to serve the needs of local veterans at the end of World War II.Originally located in Endicott, five miles west of the present campus, it was a branch of Syracuse University. Four years later, it was renamed Harpur College in honor of Robert Harpur - a Colonial teacher, patriot, and pioneer - when the college was incorporated into the State University of New York.In 1961, the campus was moved across the Susquehanna River to Vestal. Due to its growing enrollment and a reputation for excellence, Harpur College was selected as one of four doctorate-granting University Centers in the state system.And in 1965, the campus was formally designated the State University of New York at Binghamton. The university adopted Binghamton University as its informal name, in 1992.Binghamton’s 887-acre campus on a wooded hillside includes a 190-acre nature preserve and a six-acre pond, a performing arts center, art museum, events center, multi-climate greenhouse, and modern classrooms and labs.The University Art Museum has an Asian Art Gallery and a permanent collection of 1,500 art objects representing many periods and styles.The Floyd E. Anderson Center for the Arts, the performance complex for the fine and performing arts, features a Concert Theater and a Chamber Hall.The Events Center is home to basketball, as well as indoor track and tennis.Binghamton’s athletic facilities include two large gymnasiums, with swimming pools, an indoor track, and basketball, volleyball, and racquetball courts. Outdoor facilities include 26 tennis courts, a fitness trail, a new 400-meter track and soccer field, and numerous playing fields.Binghamton University consists of the Harpur College of Arts and Sciences, the School of Education and Human Development, the School of Management, the Decker School of Nursing, the Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science, and 24 specialized research centers.


Binghamton, New York

Binghamton / ˈ b ɪ ŋ əm t ən / is a city in, and the county seat of, Broome County, New York, United States. [6] Surrounded by rolling hills, it lies in the state's Southern Tier region near the Pennsylvania border, in a bowl-shaped valley at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. [7] Binghamton is the principal city and cultural center of the Binghamton metropolitan area (also known as Greater Binghamton, or historically the Triple Cities), home to a quarter million people. [8] The city's population, according to the 2010 census, is 47,376. [4]

  • • W1: Giovanni Scaringi (R)
  • • W2: Sophia Rescinti (R)
  • • W3: Angela Riley (D, G)
  • • W4: Aviva Friedman (D)
  • • W5: Joe Burns (D)
  • • W6: Philip Strawn (R)
  • • W7: Thomas Scanlon (R)

From the days of the railroad, Binghamton was a transportation crossroads and a manufacturing center, and has been known at different times for the production of cigars, shoes, and computers. [9] IBM was founded nearby, and the flight simulator was invented in the city, leading to a notable concentration of electronics- and defense-oriented firms. This sustained economic prosperity earned Binghamton the moniker of the Valley of Opportunity. [10] However, starting with job cuts made by defense firms towards the end of the Cold War, the region lost a large part of its manufacturing industry. [11]

Today, while there is a continued concentration of high-tech firms, Binghamton is emerging as a healthcare- and education-focused city, with Binghamton University acting as much of the driving force behind this revitalization. [12]


Colleges and schools include the Decker School of Nursing, Harpur College of Arts and Sciences, Health and Physical Education department, School of Education and Human Development, School of Management, and the Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science. U.S. News & World Report consistently ranks Binghamton in the top 50 public universities nationwide, and has for the last 8 years.

There are nearly 70 degree programs for graduate students at the university with plans for expansion, including a plan for a law school as well as for a School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy, expected to open in 2017.


History

The Caribbean Student Association (CSA) at Binghamton University is an organization that has served and is continuing to serve the interests of both Caribbean and Non-Caribbean Students since 1977. CSA provides educational, political, cultural, and social programs aimed at educating the larger public about our Caribbean Heritage. These programs include guest speakers, our Annual Cultural Extravaganza (CARNIVAL), Culture Night (featuring Caribbean Queen) , weekly meetings, volunteer work, mentoring programs, and a number of similar activities. CSA is the proud recipient of the 2008, 2007, 2003, 2002 & 2000 XCEL Award for Outstanding Program – Special Event of the Year, 1999 XCEL Award for Outstanding Leadership and Contribution to Student Organizations, and the 1997-1998 and 2009 Michael V. Boyd Community Award . Through community service, Binghamton University has recognized CSA as an organization that serves others.

CSA began its journey with a very small budget of $50.00 and very few privileges, but through hard work and dedication has progressed over the years. The association strives to heighten the awareness of the community on issues pertinent to people of African descent, with emphasis on the Caribbean. The Caribbean Student Association at Binghamton University has been the proud host of a week of cultural expressions that consists of music, songs, dances, and skits for the last 25 years. 2005 brought to Binghamton University the 25th Anniversary of our Annual Caribbean Carnival. This event annually attracts 2500+ participants from colleges and universities all across the northeast and is the largest student organized event across New York State. Last year’s Carnival hosted reggae artists such as Serani, Bunji Garlin, Assasin and Destra Garcia. This event combines many elements of Caribbean culture providing participants with a full and unique cultural experience. Music, food, dance, poetry, and a variety of learning experiences come together to make Caribbean Carnival at Binghamton University a model program for cultural festivals across cultures and geographic boundaries.

MISSION
Dedicated to the theme, “One Love” , the Caribbean Student Association , founded in 1977, will strive to unite and educate students of Caribbean descent, as well as students of African descent about their rich and diverse culture.


Types of Resources

Archival collections are created or received by a person, family, or organization, public or private, in the conduct of their affairs and preserved because of the enduring value contained in the information they contain or as evidence of the functions and responsibilities of their creator. Archival collections contain many different types of materials such as documents, photographs, memorabilia and artifacts, audiovisual materials, such as sound recordings, films, and videos.

  • Binghamton Local History Postcard Collection
    Available through Find it! In the Search anything box type Binghamton Local History Postcard collection

The aim of this project was two-fold – to obtain historical information about life in Broome County, which would be useful for researchers and teachers, and to provide employment for older persons of a limited income. The oral history interviews were obtained between November 1977 and September 1978 and were conducted by five interviewers under the supervision of the Action for Older Persons Program.

The collection contains 64 recorded interviews. Each interview has been transcribed. One transcribed interview does not have an accompanying audio recording. In 2005 Binghamton University Libraries’ Special Collections Department participated in the New York State Audiotape Project which undertook preservation reformatting of the audiotapes, and the creation of compact discs for patron use.

Letters are by far the largest component of the collections and many of the letters were written by soldiers at the front, or in Army hospitals, to their family and friends back home. At its core the Civil War Collections are a local history resource with emphasis on collections pertaining to the counties in the immediate Binghamton, New York area, that is Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Otsego, Tioga, and Tompkins Counties.

Collections of particular interest from outside those counties have also been included, such as a collection from Montgomery County which consists of letters written by Ten Eyck Fonda, the grandfather of the actor Henry Fonda.


Visual Resources Association Presents 2021 Distinguished Service Award to Marcia Meeker Focht

VIRTUAL CHICAGO, Illinois—The Visual Resources Association (VRA), a multidisciplinary organization dedicated to furthering research and education in the field of image management, proudly presented the 2021 Distinguished Service Award (DSA) to Marcia Meeker Focht, Binghamton University’s Visual Resources Curator, at the Virtual Chicago conference on March 25th. The VRA annually honors an individual who has made an outstanding career contribution to the field of visual resources and image management. DSA recipients have achieved a level of distinction through leadership, research, service to the profession, outstanding innovation, participation, or project management.

In over 30 years of active participation in VRA, Focht has helped to shape the association through her empathetic leadership and extraordinary service record—two terms on the VRA Executive Board, participation in various committees, task forces, and other special interest groups, and currently, Chair of the VRA Foundation. This breadth of service is only surpassed by her considerable professional talents, sincere dedication, and engaging personality. For example, she is primarily responsible for the success of the VRA Mentor Program with 13 years of “cheerleading” and matching new members with nurturing veterans to contribute to positive conference experiences and to help with ongoing professional development. She has welcomed more people to VRA than any other member, mentored many a future leader, and contributed to member retention. A forward-looking embracer of new technologies, Focht successfully transitioned her image collection from analog to digital images, collaborated with other campuses in the SUNY system to find ways to share Binghamton’s growing collection, and she continues to experiment with new technologies through digital humanities initiatives. As Tom McDonough, a Binghamton professor, stated in his letter of support, “What I’d most like to emphasize here, however, is not so much her assistance to the Art History faculty—her role was never merely supplemental or supportive—but her groundbreaking role in introducing us to the research and pedagogical potentials of the new tools offered by digital technology. Marcia could never be mistaken for a complacent figure she has consistently sought out new ideas, new opportunities, and brought them back to campus to share with students and faculty alike.” An “ambassador” of embedded metadata, she has presented and published on the innovative tools the VRA developed at regional, national, and international conferences. Focht’s career-long dedication has involved hard work, intellectual curiosity, and impressive productivity, all accomplished with boundless enthusiasm, genuine warmth, and an infectious sense of humor. VRA President, Jeannine Keefer, stated “Marcia exemplifies the numerous ways that members can participate and give back to VRA via committee and chapter participation, leadership roles, discussion contributions, and sharing our work with the world outside the association. Her mentorship and encouragement has meant the world to me over the years. I could not have asked for a better professional role model or a more dear friend.” Focht richly deserves the DSA award for her unparalleled spirit of volunteerism and career-long dedication to the visual resources profession. She has given “her head and her heart” to VRA and the membership has benefitted greatly from her generosity. http://vraweb.org/about/committees/awards-committee/vra-awards-recipients/


A brief history of the Indigenous peoples who lived here before us

Provided by Onondaga Nation The Hiawatha Belt is a belt that symbolizes when the tribes of what is now New York state threw away their weapons to live in peace with each other

Most of the land in upstate New York was illegally seized from Native American tribes

The Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers join in Downtown Binghamton which, in the 1700s, was the sacred home of the Onondaga tribe.

Before English settlers arrived in North America, the Iroquois — also known as the Haudenosaunee — Confederacy made up the population of what is now called New York state. The Iroquois are made of up several nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora, which joined after the original merging of the five former leagues.

Prior to their merge, the people of those leagues had fought against each other until the Great Peacemaker, a Huron man, was able to visit and speak to the five tribes about his plan, as defined by the Creator, god of all the tribes for peace. Eventually, Great Peacemaker was able to join all tribes together by gathering the resenting emotions together and letting them be washed away by a stream.

The Hiawatha Belt, a belt symbolizing when all the tribes threw away their weapons to live in peace with the others, was then formed to connect all five nations with a symbol for each. At the center is the Tree of Peace, a white pine to be nurtured, as the nation would be. The white pine was planted at Onondaga Lake.

Despite their tame of war within, bloodshed still arrived in the Iroquois’ land from outsiders. Randall McGuire, distinguished professor of anthropology, currently teaches a course about Native American history and elaborated on the history of the Iroquois’ displacement.

“During the colonial period, there was a massive displacement of people all along the East Coast,” McGuire said. “At a place called Otsiningo Park, which is just on the northern edge of Binghamton, there was a settlement there in the 1700s and that was a settlement of refugees of groups further south that the Iroquois had taken in and given homes to.”

Otsiningo was referred to as the “The Southern Door” by the Iroquois, referencing their standard longhouse. The term signals the importance of the settlement to the nation.

The settlement had refugees from several tribes like the Nanticoke and the Conoys from Maryland, along with the Shawnees from Pennsylvania who were displaced from their homes by settlers. Joining them were residents of the Onondaga and Oneida Nations. That settlement, however, would be burnt down at the order of George Washington during the Revolutionary War.

“George Washington sent a call of troops against the Iroquois that basically scorched earth, destroyed the village in Otsiningo here and destroyed fields, orchards, everything,” McGuire said.

Binghamton University has conducted several archeological excavations at Otsiningo in the 1970s and in 2013, which found cooking hearths, pits and artifacts which showcase the significant use of the site. Chenango Point, Chenango Point South, the Roberson Museum and Science Center and John Moore Farm are sites at the confluence of the Chenango and Susquehanna Rivers that have been excavated to uncover thousands of years of Native American history traced.

The persecution by Washington’s army led the Indians to flee to Canada where some stayed, but others returned after the Revolutionary War. Upon their return, their land became heavily sought after. Although the U.S. Constitution states that only the federal government can make treaties with an Indian nation, that is not what occurred.

“What happened in upstate New York — like where we are here now — was taken from the Iroquois, more or less, as spoils of war, and was given to a guy by the name of [William] Bingham, Binghamton, who then sold it off to settlers,” McGuire said.

William Bingham was a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress, the government for the original 13 colonies, and also served in the U.S. Senate. The wealthy banker sought to create a city with the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers meeting at the center. Joshua Whitney, land agent of what would be known as Binghamton, sought settlers to buy into the property. What spurred the creation of Binghamton, New York happened in other locations around the state, mostly with the use of private companies, according to McGuire.

The Onondaga, who were displaced from the Southern Tier, had approximately 95 percent of their land illegally taken between 1788 and 1822 through a series of acquisitions. There is a present-day reservation for the Onondaga Nation just south from the city of Syracuse in Onondaga County, a sliver of what the nation once possessed.

In the City of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation (1985), a legal battle which was brought all the way up to the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court ruled that the Oneida tribe’s land was taken under unlawful possession by the state of New York. Despite the ruling, there have not been any substantial resolutions made between New York state and any of the Iroquois tribes.

“Oneida and the state of New York have never entered into an agreement on how to resolve that,” McGuire said. “So, it’s still kind of up in the air, because no New York state governor is going to gain anything by resolving this because it’s going to cost the state hundreds of millions of dollars.”

To learn more about the Onondoga Nation, reach out to Skä•noñh, Great Law of Peace Center, a Haudenosaunee Heritage Center. More history of the Onondaga Nation can be found here.


Contents

Binghamton has competed in the NCAA since joining the SUNY system in 1950. During the 1946–1950 era, there were no particular affiliations or mascots. When, in fact, they joined SUNY and adopted the new name Harpur College, the school also adopted their first mascot: a donkey named Harpo. In transitioning to SUNY Binghamton, they also developed their athletics program further, adopting the new school nickname and mascot: The red, white, and blue Colonials. With the impending move to Division I, the school adopted the new nickname, the Bearcats, beginning with the 1999–2000 school year. [ citation needed ] The mascot, Baxter the Bearcat, was unveiled in the fall of 1999. [ citation needed ]

In the fall of 2001, Binghamton athletics formally entered the NCAA Division I and also became a member of the America East Conference in all sports other than wrestling and golf, which is not sponsored by the America East Conference. The wrestling program actually preceded the jump to Division I by becoming a provisional member of the now-defunct East Coast Wrestling Association [7] beginning with the 1999–2000 season. They made the transition from a Division III school to Division II for three years and then entered Division I. [ citation needed ] Binghamton has 21 intercollegiate sports. Binghamton's wrestling team is a member of the Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association since the America East does not sponsor wrestling.

Former Director of Health, Physical Education, and Athletics, Dr. Joel Thirer oversaw the transition from NCAA Division III to NCAA Division II to NCAA Division I. Hired in 1989, Dr. Thirer resigned on September 30, 2009, amid controversy surrounding the Men's Basketball program. [8]

More recently, the university has hosted a number of conference championships, including the 2005, 2006 and 2008 men's basketball championships, as well as, other championships from other sports.

In a Sept. 29, 2009 statement, Jim Norris had been named Interim Athletic Director. The Director of Athletics reports directly to the current interim President McGraff. [9]

Patrick Elliott was introduced as Binghamton’s director of athletics on October 6, 2011 and began his appointment on November 14.

Men's sports Women's sports
Baseball Basketball
Basketball Cross country
Cross country Lacrosse
Golf Soccer
Lacrosse Softball
Soccer Swimming & diving
Swimming & diving Tennis
Tennis Track and field †
Track and field † Volleyball
Wrestling
† – Track and field includes both indoor and outdoor.

Basketball Edit

  • Following a loss to Boston University (BU) in the first round of the 2007 America East Championship, head coach Al Walker (the only coach Binghamton had had in its Div. I history) resigned as head coach. As of March 26, Kevin Broadus, assistant coach for Georgetown University was announced to fill Walker's position.
  • In his second season as head coach, Kevin Broadus took the Bearcats to their first regular season conference title in school history.
  • Binghamton defeated UMBC 61–51 in the America East Tournament Championship Game and made their first appearance in the NCAA Tournament, earning the 15 seed and losing to second-seeded Duke in the first round.
  • In October 2009, Broadus was suspended with pay and replaced by Mark Macon on an interim basis. [10]
  • The school became entangled in a scandal when it was discovered that the university had compromised admissions and academic standards in order to bolster its men's basketball team. Several players and staffers were dismissed from the program following numerous arrests and allegations of academic dishonesty.
  • Binghamton's men's basketball team has never recovered from the scandal, failing to accrue a winning record in overall or conference play since.

The women's team has made no Division I Tournament appearances, but they made the Division III Tournament from 1995 to 1998 and Division II in 1999.

Baseball Edit

Rugby Edit

The men's rugby team was founded by an exchange student from London. He began promoting the idea of founding a college club in the spring of 1979 and began organizing and establishing the Club in earnest in the fall of 1979. The Binghamton Devils Rugby Club currently competes at the highest level of collegiate rugby, D1A. The program has won numerous conference championships and is widely acknowledged as the best looking program on campus.

Other programs Edit

Binghamton has 20 other successful Division I program sports, although the media focuses primarily on men's basketball. They include women's basketball, golf, baseball, softball, men's lacrosse, women's lacrosse, men's soccer, women's soccer, men's cross country, women's cross country, men's swimming & diving, women's swimming & diving, men's tennis, women's tennis, women's volleyball, wrestling, men's indoor track, women's indoor track, men's outdoor track and women's outdoor track. The program posted an overall 3.1 APR for all 21 sports and has been recognized for its scholar athletes. The men's tennis program posted an overall 3.69 GPA for the 2010 spring semester.

Events Center Edit

The Events Center plays host to both men and women basketball games. It has a capacity of nearly ten thousand for non-sporting events and approximately 5,222 for basketball games. With recent capacity issues, the Athletic Department will be looking at various existent options for expanding capacity in the 2009–2010 season. The facilities has an indoor track where the track and field teams practice and compete, indoor tennis courts for both men and women tennis teams, as well as the primary weight and fitness equipment, sports medicine and uniform issuance facilities. The facility also includes a 150-person private lounge donated by a Binghamton University fraternity, Tau Alpha Upsilon (TAU). It is known as the TAU Bearcat Clubroom.

Bearcats Sports Complex Edit

Opened in the Fall of 2007, the Bearcat Sports Complex features two artificial turf fields for soccer and lacrosse. One field is intended primarily for competition and the other for practice. Additional features include night lighting, over 2,500 seats for the competition field and 1,000 for the practice field, a concession stand, and bathrooms. In 2009, the Tau Alpha Upsilon [TAU] fraternity sponsored the naming of both the press box and the scoreboard. A plaque was dedicated in their honor at the entrance of the new sports complex. A recent announcement unveiled plans to moved the Softball competition field to the complex. A new field along with a modestly sized stadium and pressbox will be added immediately behind the current concession stand.

West Gym Edit

The West Gym is an Athletic facility that hosts the weight, practice and competition facilities for the wrestling team. Also, the varsity pool is home to both men and women swim and diving teams. The gymnasium is used for volleyball, basketball practice, basesball practice( has batting cages on the inside) and wrestling matches.

Varsity Field Edit

Home to the varsity baseball team, Varsity Field features a diamond with dugouts and bleachers. It was recently announced that Varsity field will undergo major renovations set for completion by the 2012 season. The project was supposed to be for an artificial turf field along with light and many other updates including bathrooms in the dugouts. However, the state would not allow them to get turf so the team did receive a new field but did not receive all of the promises they were originally told.

East Gym Field Edit

Home to the softball team.

Alumni Stadium Edit

A 2,000 seat stadium, athletic field, outdoor track and field facilities. While it has previously hosted the lacrosse teams, it is primarily used for the track and field teams. The track was resurfaced in 2007. The field has also hosted rugby games in the fall season. Although it has not been used recently due to fears of the rugby team destroying the field while playing. This is despite the fact that they are the only team to use the infield of the track in the fall or spring.


DATABANKS INTERNATIONAL'S Cross-National Time-Series (CNTS) Data Archive

The Cross-National Time-Series Data Archive was a product of the State University of New York (Binghamton), launched in the fall of 1968 by Arthur S. Banks (1926-2011) under the aegis of the University's Center for Comparative Political Research (subsequently the Center for Social Analysis). Arthur S. Banks was Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York. His lengthy service (1968-1996) included nearly a decade as department chairman. His numerous publications include A Cross-Polity Survey (with Robert B. Textor, 1963) and senior editorship of the Political Handbook of the World from 1975 to 1997.

The archive was, in part, the outcome of an effort initiated a year earlier to assemble, in machine readable, longitudinal format, certain of the aggregate data resources of The Statesman's Yearbook , an annual with a history of continuous publication since 1864, which had never been systematically mined for quantitative materials of potential utility for comparative social scientists. Many of the data extracted from this source proved, however, to be of questionable reliability (particularly for the earlier years) and a large number of additional sources were ultimately consulted. As a result of this, The Statesman's Yearbook was subsequently abandoned as a primary source.

In establishing the archive, it was decided to assemble materials, insofar as possible, dating from 1815 (immediately after the Congress of Vienna and formation of the modern international system). It was also decided that all commonly recognized members of the international community should be represented, excluding a handful of quasi-states such as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and Vatican City. In 1977, data for the latter were also introduced, with coverage extending from 1975.

In January 1971, 102 of the archive's variables were presented in a volume entitled Cross-Polity Time-Series Data .

The Archive continued to be updated with data supplied by Dr. Banks until he passed away in April of 2011, and continues to be updated by researchers. Since 2011, a live link to every news report from which a Domestic Conflict Event is counted can be found in the optional LINKS files.


Contents

Below is a table of the program's yearly records since its inception. [3] [4] [5]

National champion Postseason invitational champion
Conference regular season champion Conference regular season and conference tournament champion
Division regular season champion Division regular season and conference tournament champion
Conference tournament champion


HIST 480K Binghamton's Business

The Endicott Johnson Corporation was founded in 1899 when Henry Endicott purchased a struggling Lester Brothers Boot and Shoe Company and formed the Endicott Shoe Company. In order to run the company efficiently, George F. Johnson, who was once the factory&rsquos assistant superintendent, was promoted to manager. Not too long afterwards, Johnson banded together to form a partnership with Endicott and rebranded the company and formed the Endicott Johnson Corporation. During Johnson&rsquos presidency, the corporation became one of the largest shoe manufacturers in the United States in the early 1920&rsquos. The company was responsible for nearly all of the shoes and footwear for the United States army during both World War I and World War II. Johnson&rsquos success can be related to his square deal version of welfare capitalism, where he implemented various worker benefits and programs even during harsh economic times. This resulted in an unique bond, between employer and employee, which helped him earn their loyalty. With Johnson&rsquos square deal in place, it also provided more opportunity for woman in the workplace. Through oral histories, EJ Worker Magazines, an EJ worker handbook, and the work of historians such as Gerald Zahavi and Diane Vecchio we get a better sense of why women wanted to work at a company such as Endicott Johnson.

The Evolution of George F. Johnson&rsquos views on women in the workforce according to Gerald Zahavi:

George F. Johnson originally thought that women should not be working and should be home with the children. Johnson wrote to a clergyman in 1923 about the topic and stated that, &ldquoToo many of our families, in order to make a little more money, send their wives into the factories. I don&rsquot approve of this except in cases of extreme necessity. The place of the housewife, it seems to me is in the home.&rdquo Zahavi states that the company at times made it hard for a female worker, as it offered inflexible part time hiring, and the company did not provide day care services for its employees. However he also states that, &ldquothe extensive welfare benefits that the firm offered partially made up for the lack of child care facilities.&rdquo Zahavi also claims that as the company employed more women(see statistics below), Johnson faced public controversy over the high percentage of working females within the company. Johnson changes his viewpoint on the topic in 1928 when he published a statement saying, &ldquoWomen seek employment in our factories, because of the good wages they earn, and the easy work and pleasant factory conditions. If women continue to work after marriage, it is because they want the money they earn.&rdquo

*Zahavi is a well respected historian who has great knowledge about the history of Endicott Johnson as a company*

Growth of women within EJ based on Zahavi's findings:

  • By 1900 there were 400 women employed by the firm, which represented about 22 percent of the company&rsquos workers
  • By 1920 there were 3,962 women employed by the firm, making up around 27 percent of the company&rsquos workers
  • By 1927 women made up around 35 percent of the company&rsquos workers (Around the time period in which Johnson changes his views)
  • Women that were married at Endicott Johnson allowed themselves to take full advantage of the firm&rsquos welfare services. By the mid 1920s roughly half of EJ female workers were married.

* Zahavi is a well respected historian who has great knowledge about the history of Endicott Johnson as a company*

Why Women Worked at EJ:

In an interview conducted in 1982, Adaline Filip, a married female employee at Endicott Johnson explains why she wanted to work at Endicott Johnson and no where else. She states that, &ldquo I was determined to get to EJ no matter how, because I could get benefits, and my family. I thought well, if I don&rsquot make high wages, so what? I&rsquoll get the benefits, and I&rsquoll be better off.&rdquo Adaline also states that her husband Frances worked at the corporation, so they were able to take full advantage of the firm&rsquos welfare services. Zahavi also argues that due to these benefits women more than likely persuaded their husbands to seek employment at EJ, so they too could receive these welfare services. Within another interview, David Neilson interviewed a female employee who states that she was sick prior to employment at EJ and sought EJ out because of their medical benefits. She says, &ldquo With Endicott Johnson was their medical and their doctors. You&rsquod be taken care of. Of Course, in my mind I knew that I would probably always have to have care. So I applied for a position.&rdquo

Mary Shaughnessy&rsquos Experience at EJ:

Mary Shaughnessy was an employee of EJ and provides a first- hand account of what it was like as a female worker employed by EJ. She supports the claims that there were good working conditions and benefits. Mary worked previously at a cigar factory, but changed occupations and went to work for EJ, as the benefits were better. She said her job at the company was putting the heel lining in the shoe, and she worked there for approximately 2 years. Mary states that she decided to work at EJ because her husband worked at the factory as well, which meant they qualified for specific welfare services that were given to married couples that were employed at EJ. Mary&rsquos experience, also supports the claims that woman joined the company for the worker benefits when she explains that her husband became ill while working the job. She stated that the company paid for his medical bills and placed him in a hospital in the mountains to improve his health.

Benefits Women Received based on Employee Handbook:

  • Medical plan: As of 1959 45 physicians were on call at Wilson Memorial Hospital:
    • &ldquoEveryone eligible regular employee, retiree, and immediate dependent members of their family who are eligible for service are entitled to hospitalization.&rdquo
    • &ldquoThere is no limit, nor is a charge made for any service authorized by your doctor. The authorized cost will be covered by the Endicott Johnson Plan.&rdquo

    Some of the other plans and benefits:

    • Old age and survivors insurance (SS)
    • Pension Plans
    • Surgical benefits- fully covered
    • Dental care- partially covered
    • Counseling- fully covered
    • Paid holidays
    • Injuries on and off the job- covered depending on the circumstance
    • Home owning plan:
    • Married women whose spouse also worked at the company qualified them to be able to purchase an Endicott Johnson home. Houses were sold at the cost of construction plus the value of the lot on which it was erected. All employees were eligible after the 2 nd year of employment. Widows were able to obtain houses too during this time period.

    Evidence of women obtaining help through the various EJ benefits:

    Primary Source: EJ Workers Magazine

    • &ldquo I wish to thank Dr. Peterson and the nurses of the Johnson City General Hospital for the care and treatment during my illness&rdquo &ndash May Palmer

    Secondary Source: Diane Vecchio's Novel

    • Elisabetta Manziano was on maternity leave, and asked for financial help while she took time off. In the end, EJ helped her with her bills by paying her heat, electricity, mortgage while she was gone.
    • Mary Simona, a widow, had four children who had the opportunity to purchase her own home. Simona was a tanner who worked with the company for 16+ years and was very loyal to the company

    Although women worked at EJ for the benefits, they also were incentivized to have a lot of children:

    Women worked primarily for the benefits, but women were also financially incentivized by EJ to have more children. Upon birth of the child, the mother and the child were given each a $10 gold coin by the corporation. This was done by the corporation for a reason, as worker Ann Bell states that, &ldquoChildren were regarded as material which could be molded in any shape the parent desired&hellipThis guidance will come especially from the mother.&rdquo This means that mothers had an important role in raising their children(Having control of them) could result in their children more than likely working at EJ. Johnson was known for preached the saying, "One Big Happy Family"- which made it easy for a family member to get a job, if there family member already worked at the company. Johnson was a fan of helping other family members getting jobs because they were responsible for one another, and it increased productivity.