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George Kitchen was an outstanding sportsman. He became a professional golfer at the age of 14. He also played cricketer and for a time worked as a coach at Dulwich College. Kitchen eventually decided to concentrate on football and played for Stockport County before joining Everton. An outstanding goalkeeper, he was considered to be one of the best in England. Syd King persuaded Kitchen to join West Ham United in 1905. He joined a defence that included Tommy Allison, Frank Piercy, David Gardner, Len Jarvis and Bill Wildman. During the 1906-07 season the team only conceded 41 goals in 38 games. Kitchen is probably the only goalkeeper to score a goal on his debut. This was against Swindon Town on 2nd September, 1905. Kitchen was the team's penalty taker and he added three more that season. Kitchen was a regular member of the team for six seasons: 31 (1904-05), 39 (1905-06), 25 (1906-07), 41 (1907-08), 41 (1908-09) and 28 (1909-10). Kitchen was transferred to Southampton in 1912 and after making 39 appearances he decided to retire from football to become a golf professional.
The first kitchen at Mount Vernon was one of four outbuildings (along with the dairy, storehouse, and washhouse) that were positioned in two pairs, each running in a line at an angle to a corner of the Mansion's west facade. The buildings formed an open forecourt that framed the house and faced the circle where the formal carriage driveway led to the Mansion.
The placement of the kitchen at Mount Vernon was dictated by a series of functional, social, and environmental factors. The concern for safety from potential fires, the desire to avoid kitchen heat, and the need to avoid the smell of food cooking in the household were of significant importance. In addition, there was the desire to separate domestic functions from the dwelling in order to reinforce the segregation of enslaved workers' activities from those of the planter family. 1
A kitchen based on these guidelines was constructed at Mount Vernon some time before 1753 and was replaced in 1775, the year George Washington undertook a significant enlargement of the Mansion, while simultaneously altering the layout of a variety of outbuildings as well as of the surrounding gardens and grounds. 2
The expansion and redesign at Mount Vernon began just before Washington left to command American forces outside of Boston in May 1775. The plan called for the construction of new outbuildings to match the enlarged Mansion. The outmoded structures were demolished and two new buildings&mdashthe kitchen and the servants' hall&mdashwere erected in their place.
The new kitchen was larger and more architecturally detailed than the original, matching the Mansion in many aspects. Most notably, the siding boards on the facade facing the circle were beveled and sanded to create the appearance of stone blocks. Covered walkways called colonnades were built to connect each of the new structures to the Mansion. Workers carrying food back and forth between the kitchen and the Mansion did so along this protected passageway. 3
The updated kitchen included three workrooms on the first floor and a loft above, which served as the residence of the cook or housekeeper. The largest of the three workrooms included a fireplace and an attached oven. The other workrooms were a scullery where food was prepared and dishes were washed, and a larder with a subterranean cooling floor to store food. According to the inventory of the kitchen completed after George Washington's death, the kitchen contained a wide variety of cooking equipment, including pots and pans, skillets, a griddle, a toaster, a boiler, spits, chafing dishes, tin and pewter "Ice Cream Pots," coffeepots, and strainers. 4
1. Camille Wells, "The Eighteenth-Century Landscape of Virginia&rsquos Northern Neck," Northern Neck of Virginia Historical Magazine (December 1987): 4231&ndash2 Donald W. Linebaugh, "'All the Annoyances and Inconveniences of the Country': Environmental Factors in the Development of Outbuildings in the Colonial Chesapeake," Winterthur Portfolio 29, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 1&ndash18.
2. Dennis J. Pogue, "Mount Vernon: Transformation of an Eighteenth-Century Plantation System," in Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake, eds. Paul A. Shackel and Barbara J. Little (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994), 101&ndash14.
3. Dennis J. Pogue, "Archaeology at George Washington&rsquos Mount Vernon, 1931&ndash2006," Archeological Society of Virginia Quarterly Bulletin 61, no. 4 (December 2006): 165&ndash75.
4. W. K. Bixby, ed., Inventory of the Contents of Mount Vernon ([privately printed] 1810), 41&ndash4.
Discovery in the collections: 1914 Kodachrome of George Eastman
You know how sometimes you are looking for one thing, but find something else that is even better? This color portrait of George Eastman, the founder of the Eastman Kodak Company, is an example. It was taken by photographer Joseph D’ Anunzio on September 2, 1914, more than 20 years before Kodachrome film was introduced to the public. How is that possible?
George Eastman by Joseph D’ Anunzio, September 2, 1914.
The photograph came to the Photographic History Collection by an accident that worked to the museum’s advantage. In 1969, several hundred portraits were donated to the collection by a single donor. Among the portraits were four 8 X 10 inch glass plates, described as Kodachromes taken in 1914. Unfortunately, two of the portraits, both of young women, arrived damaged. One had a cracked corner the other had a crack in the glass plate from top to bottom. The donor apologized for packing the glass plates poorly and sent the color portrait of George Eastman by way of compensation.
“Kodachrome” might sound familiar. Kodak eventually had at least three different processes that went by this new trademark, the first in 1914. In the early years of the twentieth century Eastman Kodak pursued the development of a simple color photography process that could be used by amateur photographers. Charles Mees, the first director of Kodak Research Laboratories, said that George Eastman was crazy about color.
The 1914 version was devised by John Capstaff, a member of Kodak’s research staff. To make a color image like the museum’s photograph, two 8 X 10 inch glass plates were sandwiched together. Two photos were taken at the same time by a special camera through green and orange-red filters that reversed one image with a mirror. After the negatives were developed the positive images were dyed green and orange-red and bound together with the emulsion sides face to face.
George Eastman enjoyed using the new Kodachrome process. He took color photographs of family, friends, business associates, and visitors. Capstaff process Kodachromes were exhibited at the Rochester, New York art gallery in November 1914 and at London’s Royal Photographic Society in March 1915. The same photographs were also shown at the San Francisco Panama Pacific Exposition later in 1915. It is believed by the donor that the George Eastman Kodachrome above was exhibited at the Rochester art gallery in November 1914 and possibly at the other exhibits.
The two-color Capstaff Kodachrome process could reproduce flesh tones with reasonable accuracy, but could not produce a full range of colors. As a result it was unsatisfactory for many subjects, including landscapes. Additionally, by 1914 the Lumière Brothers in France had devised a simple one-shot color process called Autochromes that accurately reproduced a full spectrum of colors using an ordinary plate camera. Further work on the Kodachrome process was stopped but research into a viable film based color process was continued. Eastman Kodak was eventually successful and in 1935 the film we now know as Kodachrome was introduced to the public.
There is a well known variation of Eastman portrait that is occasionally reproduced. We are pleased that the reemergence of our portrait can add to the depth of the history of color photography.
Below are some of the other images made with the 1914 Kodachrome process from the Photographic History Collection. It is possible that George Eastman may have taken one or more of the photographs.
Portrait of young girl with roses
Tony Brooks is a volunteer in the Culture and the Arts Department of the National Museum of American History.
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→ The Work Triangle: An Outdated Kitchen Design Myth or Absolute Must-Have?
The ideas of these two women were influential on a generation of German designers, who, fueled by their mania for clean, honest designs that clearly proclaimed their function, sought to create a kitchen that not only worked efficiently but looked efficient as well. In 1923, George Muche and Adolf Meyer, two designers at Germany’s modernist Bauhaus school, created the Haus am Horn, a model home whose kitchen, though it’s nearly 100 years old, looks strikingly modern. It’s all there: the smooth, level countertops, the uniform cabinets, the stove that tucks neatly under the counter.
In 1927, Margarete Schutte Lihotzky, the first woman to qualify as an architect in her native Austria, built on and expanded upon the ideas of the Bauhaus kitchen with her design for the Frankfurt kitchen, designed for the new worker housing being built in that city. The Frankfurt kitchen, though quite small, was full of thoughtful touches designed to ease the burden of homekeeping, including a fold-out ironing board, a wall-mounted dish drainer, and aluminum bins for dry goods, which had handles and spouts for pouring. The Frankfurt Kitchen was hugely influential on subsequent kitchen design: like the Bauhaus example, it seems preternaturally modern, although with a bit more warmth (and even color). Interestingly enough, the Frankfurt kitchen did not come with a refrigerator, thought to be an extravagance in a place where people still shopped every day.
In the 1930s, kitchen ads, if not necessarily actual kitchens, began to reflect the new vogue for the ‘fitted’ kitchen. In 1943 the Libbey-Owens-Ford company comissioned H. Creston Dohner to design a model kitchen, called the ‘Kitchen of Tomorrow’. Displayed in various department stores throughout the country, it was seen by an estimated 1.5 million people.
Although some of its innovations, like the built-in waffle maker and foot pedal-operated sink, didn’t quite catch on, the Kitchen of Tomorrow helped to establish the Bauhaus idea of sleek, continuous countertops as the standard for a modern kitchen. Of course, this didn’t mean that people went out and replaced their piecemeal kitchens immediately. But the die had been cast — the new look of the kitchen had been established, and there was no going back.
For further reading:
As a Senior Writer at Apartment Therapy, Nancy splits her time among looking at beautiful pictures, writing about design, and photographing stylish apartments in and around NYC. It’s not a bad gig.
Masa arrived in the United States in 1901.
In 1915, he settled in Asheville, North Carolina, where he would spend the final 18 years of his life.
After initially working for the Grove Park Inn as a bellhop and valet, Masa left the inn to take a position as a photographer in February 1919. Eventually, he founded Plateau Studio (a business he later sold, which is still in operation today).  His customers included some of the town's most affluent citizens such as the Vanderbilt, Grove, and Seely families.
Masa came to love the mountains of Western North Carolina and worked tirelessly for their preservation, often at his own expense. Using his photographic equipment and an odometer he crafted from an old bicycle,  Masa meticulously catalogued a significant number of peaks,  the distances between them, and the names given to them by the local settlers and the Cherokee.  He was a friend of Horace Kephart,  and the two of them worked together to ensure that a large portion of the Great Smoky Mountains would be established as a national park. Masa also scouted and marked the entire North Carolina portion of the Appalachian Trail. 
Masa died in 1933 from influenza. He had desired to be buried next to his good friend Kephart near Bryson City, North Carolina.  However with no surviving family or estate, his burial was organized by his local hiking club, and they did not have the necessary funds to do so.  Instead, he was buried in Asheville's Riverside Cemetery. 
One year after Masa's death, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park was officially established.  
In 1961, Masa Knob, a peak of 5,685 feet  in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, was named in Masa's honor.   It stands, appropriately, adjacent to Mount Kephart.
Interest in Masa's life was revived by documentary film-makers more than 60 years after his death. Bonesteel Films released a 90-minute documentary about George Masa in 2003.  Also, the fourth episode of Ken Burns's documentary about "The National Parks: America's Best Idea" features George Masa (entitled "Going Home" covering the period between 1920 and 1933), which was initially broadcast on September 30, 2009. 
This Is Conrad Hayer, A Man Who Made Photographic History At 103 Years Old
Feast your eyes on Conrad Hayer, a New England-dwelling vet of the American Revolution who, at 103 years old, decided to take advantage of a good old fashioned photo op.
The lovely portrait above, courtesy of the Maine Historical Society, is a daguerreotype made in the year 1852. As such, it clocks in a bit after the contenders for the first photographs ever taken. Yet Hayer himself, born in 1749, was older than his contemporary photographic subjects, and is considered to be the first photo model ever born, making him. the earliest born person ever photographed.
Plus, according to Imaging Resource, he is also the only photographed Revolutionary War veteran who served under George Washington and crossed the Delaware River to Valley Forge.
In terms of his personal history, Hayer moved to a farm in Waldoboro, Maine after the war, where he spent the remainder of his days. He passed away four years after the photo was taken, at 107 years old. The gripping photograph, aside from its American historical significance, captures the intensity of an individual who, even at 103, maintains an intimidating dignity and presence. We can feel the unflinching power of his piercing gaze from the comfort of our desks, all these years later.
The George S. Bolster Collection contains about 325,000 negatives from Saratoga Springs. Most of the approximately 60,000 negatives in the series that George Bolster called “Old Saratoga” were made between 1900 and 1960, primarily by Harry B. Settle. Other well-known photographers, such as Jesse S. Wooley, Gustave Lorey, Seneca Ray Stoddard, C.C. Cook, and H.C. Ashby are also represented in “Old Saratoga.” George Bolster’s lifetime work: wedding pictures, high school and college yearbook pictures, and photos of numerous local businesses from the 1930s through the 1980s makes up about three fourths of the collection. “Old Saratoga” includes pictures of residential, commercial, and religious buildings interiors and exteriors of grand and small hotels mineral springs, bottling plants, and drink halls the race track and people at work, study, and play. Aerial photographs from as early as 1929 document dramatic changes in the shape of the city over a 35-year period.
The George S. Bolster Collection is open to researchers Monday, Tuesday and Friday 10-3. Appointments are suggested. Images are property of the Saratoga Springs History Museum and may not be reproduced without written permission. In addition, several of our Bolster Collection prints are offered in our online store for purchase.
A History of Photography
Alexander Gardner (American, b. Scotland, 1821–1882). Scouts and Guides to the Army of the Potomac, October 1862. Albumen silver print. George Eastman Museum, gift of Alden Scott Boyer.
Dina Dar (American, b. Poland, 1939–1995). Dina's Coat, 1990. Electrostatic print. George Eastman Museum, gift of Reuven, Nily and Jonathan Dar in memory of Dina Dar. © Reuven Dar
Robbert Flick (American, b. Netherlands, b. 1939). SV 033/81, East of Lancaster, along Highway 14, California, 1981. From the series Sequential Views. Gelatin silver print, printed ca. 1982. George Eastman Museum, purchase with funds from the Lila Acheson Wallace Foundation. © Robbert Flick
José Maria Mora (American, b. Cuba, 1849–1926). W.F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, ca. 1875. Albumen silver print. George Eastman Museum, gift of the 3M Foundation, ex-collection. Louis Walton Sipley.
For centuries, people have immigrated to the United States and recorded their perspectives on the unfamiliar country. This rotation is a brief chronological presentation of selected photographs created by immigrants to this country, many of whom became naturalized citizens. Photographers such as Napoleon Sarony (American, b. Canada, 1821–1896) and José Maria Mora (American, b. Cuba, 1849–1926) dedicated their careers to creating portraits of notable Americans, including Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Grover Cleveland. Others documented the American landscape at key moments. Arnold Genthe (American, b. Germany, 1869–1942) recorded the chaotic aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and Andreas Feininger (American, b. France, 1906–1999) photographed the bright lights and hectic environment of Times Square in the 1940s. In the 21st century, photographers such as Vietnam-born Binh Danh (b. 1977) turned their lenses on the regions of the world from which they emigrated, while others, like Marco Breuer (German, b. 1966), have maintained their native citizenship while living and working in the United States.
Curated by Meghan L. Jordan, curatorial assistant, with Jamie M. Allen, Stephen B. and Janice G. Ashley Associate Curator, this installation highlights the fresh vision and pictorial insight brought to America by newcomers.
About the History of Photography Gallery
The George Eastman Museum photography collection is among the best and most comprehensive in the world. With holdings that include objects ranging in date from the announcement of the medium’s invention in 1839 to the present day, the collection represents the full history of photography. Works by renowned masters of the medium exist side-by-side with vernacular and scientific photographs. The collection also includes all applications of the medium, from artistic pursuit to commercial enterprise and from amateur pastime to documentary record, as well as all types of photographic processes, from daguerreotypes to digital prints.
The museum's History of Photography Gallery is dedicated to rotating installations that demonstrate photography’s historical trajectory through photographs and cameras drawn from the collection. The selection of photographs changes twice a year, and each rotation offers new opportunities to engage with the museum's treasures.
The Kitchen was used to prepare all meals served to George and Martha Washington and their many guests. Cooking in Mount Vernon&rsquos kitchen was hot, smoky, demanding, and skilled work. Enslaved cooks like Doll, Hercules, Nathan, and Lucy, arose at four each morning to light the fire in the oven and prepare for the meals to be served in the Mansion. Their duties could continue well into the evening. The Washingtons placed great trust in their cooks, whose talent was evident in visitors&rsquo descriptions of sumptuous meals.
Under Martha Washington&rsquos supervision, cooks planned menus and selected ingredients for each day&rsquos meals. Enslaved laborers on the estate grew and harvested most of the Washingtons&rsquo food: wheat and corn from the fields, fresh vegetables from the garden, fruit from the orchards, fish caught in the Potomac, and smoked ham from hogs raised on site. Imported luxuries like tea, coffee, chocolate, olives, oranges, and wine supplemented homegrown ingredients.
Their role in the kitchen allowed enslaved cooks to shape the tastes of the household&mdashand the region. Many iconic southern dishes bear the influence of West African cuisine, from stews like gumbo to ingredients like okra, sweet potatoes, peanuts, and collard greens.
The placement of the kitchen at Mount Vernon was dictated by a series of functional, social, and environmental factors. The concern for safety from potential fires, the desire to avoid kitchen heat, and the need to avoid the smell of food cooking in the household were of significant importance. In addition, there was a desire to separate domestic functions from the main house in order to reinforce the segregation of enslaved workers' activities from those of the planter family.
A kitchen based on these guidelines was constructed at Mount Vernon before 1753 and was replaced in 1775. The expansion and redesign at Mount Vernon began just before Washington left to command American forces outside of Boston in May 1775. The new kitchen was larger and more architecturally detailed than the original, matching the Mansion in many aspects. Most notably, the siding boards on the facade facing the circle were beveled and sanded to create the appearance of stone blocks. Covered walkways called colonnades were built to connect each of the new structures to the Mansion. Workers carrying food back and forth between the kitchen and the Mansion did so along this protected passageway.
The updated kitchen included three workrooms on the first floor and a loft above. From the documentary record, we know the loft served as a residence at different times for Eleanor Forbes (a hired housekeeper) and John Fairfax (a hired overseer). The largest of the three workrooms included a fireplace and an attached oven. The other workrooms were a scullery where food was prepared and dishes were washed and a larder with a subterranean cooling floor to store food. According to the inventory of the kitchen completed after George Washington's death, the kitchen contained a wide variety of cooking equipment, including pots and pans, skillets, a griddle, a toaster, a boiler, spits, chafing dishes, tin and pewter "Ice Cream Pots," coffeepots, and strainers.