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Persian Copper Stag Pendant

Persian Copper Stag Pendant


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Turquoise Value, Price, and Jewelry Information

Turquoise in silver jewelry: Arizona and New Mexico. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

With striking sky blue to blue-green colors, turquoise has been prized by cultures all over the world for over 5,000 years. Today, the traditional December birthstone is favored by well-known modern jewelry designers as well as aficionados of American Southwestern and Native American jewelry.


What is stabilized turquoise?

  • Stabilized or Enhanced: An epoxy or a plastic filler is added via pressure to the stone. If the stone naturally formed with holes or pits, they can be filled with epoxy for a smoother surface area. Some stabilized turquoise is color enhanced.
  • Reconstituted or Chalk: Fragments of turquoise are crushed into a powder form, which is then mixed with epoxy to make harder blocks that can then be cut into slabs or stone shapes. We do not sell, nor do we recommend buying, reconstituted or chalk turquoise.
  • Block or Imitation: Synthetic material (dyed plastic) or the manipulation of another stone (such as the Howlite) made to look like turquoise, but with no actual turquoise stone in it at all. We do not sell, nor do we recommend buying, block or imitation turquoise.


What is a copper deficency?

Copper deficiency can be caused by a diet that lacks foods containing copper (such as shellfish, certain nuts, chocolate, liver, or red wine) or from ingesting high doses of vitamin C or zinc, both of which can block copper’s absorption. The body uses copper for proper bone, nervous system, joint, and circulatory system health. Oral supplements can overload the body with unnecessary copper and can do damage in people who are unable to metabolize the mineral. Therefore, some people find it beneficial to wear copper jewelry for the purpose of having a small amount of copper absorbed through the skin.

Most people have the ability to take in as much copper as their body needs and block any excess, which makes copper jewelry perfectly fine, and perhaps even beneficial, for most.


Modern Day Ankle Bracelet Meaning

As you likely already know, anklets today have spread to western culture and are worn by people all over the world. While some traditions remain in places like India, where women still usually wear an anklet as part of their bridal jewelry, they are not as closely associated with these traditions and meanings.

Imagine if today instead of wearing engagement rings we wore anklets! Things have certainly changed, but that doesn’t mean that there aren’t any modern meanings associated with ankle bracelets. In particular, some people believe that there is a difference if you wear an anklet on your left or your right ankle.

If you wear it on your left ankle, some people believe that you are signifying that you are married but in an open relationship. However, this belief is not followed nearly as closely as traditions dating back centuries.

Overall, in western culture, the modern-day meaning is pretty much the same as a bracelet or other piece of jewelry – it’s an accessory that some people like to wear, and that’s it! If you are interested in wearing an anklet, you shouldn’t worry about what message you might be trying to send.


Clue 3: How to Identify the Materials of Black Jewelry

Black jewelry can be found in abundance at flea markets, estate sales, and antique stores. Identifying what the black material is can make a big difference in determining when it was made and how much it could be worth. Black jewelry most likely made of one of the following: plastic, glass, stone, jet, gutta-percha, crepe stone, bog oak, and bakelite. There are ways to test each one of these materials to determine what it is.

  • Plastic is the most obvious of all materials to decipher. Plastic is very lightweight and you can tap it on your tooth to hear a "click" sound. Use your loupe to look for a mold line. A mold line will go all around the piece splitting in two.
  • Glass will be heavier and reflects light. Holding it in your hand will warm up the material.
  • Stone would remain cold if you held it in your hand.
  • Jet is as light as plastic, and hard and coal-like in material. This material is a type of fossilized wood that was first mined in Whitby, England in the mid 1800s. Carving jet was so popular that by 1870 there were more than two hundred jet shops in the small town of Whitby. Today, jet is in the seams of the cliff walls on which the town is built. Nowadays, it is illegal to mine for jet, which makes the material extremely valuable. To test for jet, rub the material on concrete or clay pottery. If a brownish black mark line is left, then it is jet. Just a note: jet breaks easily.
  • Gutta-percha can also be black. It is made from the sap of a Malayan tree. It was used primarily in the Victorian Era. Running this material under hot water will cause it to emit a strong burnt rubber smell. You can also rub a piece on your clothes to create friction. This material was introduced into England in 1841.
  • Crepe stone is another black material and is made of glass. It was introduced in 1883 by the Fowler brothers in Providence, Rhode Island. It was called English Crepe Stone. It has a very distinctive look. See photo show.
  • Bog oak is also another black material that is very easy to identify because it is oak wood that has been preserved in the bogs of Ireland. This jewelry is visually identifiable because of the Irish motifs.
  • Bakelite can be made black, but not all Bakelite is black. It is a phenolic plastic that was popular in the 1920s and 30s. A good test for Bakelite is to put 409 bathroom cleaner on a cotton swab and touch a small hidden area. If the cotton swab is yellow after touching the surface of the tested piece than it is Bakelite.

eBay Is a Great Source for Buying Antique Jewelry

Auctions on eBay are fun to watch. I like to look up different styles and periods of jewelry to see what comes up and how much it sells for. This helps me to understand the market better. Then when I shop at estate sales, auctions, and antique stores, I have a better idea of what I am looking at. I also come in with a price in mind.


TURQUOISE IN ESTATE JEWELRY, ANTIQUE JEWELRY AND VINTAGE JEWELRY

Turquoise was a popular stone used in the Victorian Jewelry period. Contemporary estate jewelry made from Persian turquoise and gold is very popular.

ORIGIN OF NAME
Persian turquoise was brought to Europe via Turkey, around the 13th century. The gemstone was sold in Turkish markets and purchased by Venice merchants that brought the stone to Europe. The French recipients of the gemstone called it "pierre turquoise" or "Turkish stone".

HISTORY
The first known use of turquoise dates 5000 B.C. in Iraq, where beads have been found. Turquoise is Iran's national gemstone. It has been used to decorate thrones, daggers, bowls, cups, horse tack, ornamental objects and clothing decorations for high officials. Turquoise was very significant to Tibetans. The ancient Greeks and Romans engraved turquoise for ring stones, pendants and carved it into beads. Turquoise became more important during the Middles Ages for decorating covers of manuscripts. Turquoise became very popular during the Renaissance, when turquoise was frequently used in men's rings. The Incas carved turquoise beads, statues and made turquoise inlays. The Aztecs used turquoise for inlaid pendants and rings. In the US, the Zuni, Hopi, Pueblo and the Navajo all made necklaces, earrings and rings. In Northern New Mexico, turquoise beads and pendants have been found in burial sites.

Turquoise is considered to be the first stone mined. Turquoise was the first stone that appears to have been duplicated. Soapstone was found colored with a blue and green glaze from 3100 B.C. Egyptian turquoise beads have been dated back to 4000 B.C.

BIRTHDAYS AND ANNIVERSARIES
Turquoise is the birthstone for December and the 11th wedding anniversary stone.

LEGENDS
In Iran, it was believed that if one could see the reflection of a new moon on a turquoise that the person was certain to have good luck and be protected from evil. The Hindus believed that if an individual looked at a new moon, and then looked at turquoise they would be rewarded with great wealth to follow. The Navajos believed that a throwing a piece of turquoise in the river, while praying to rain gods, that rain would bless them. The Apache believed that attaching turquoise to a weapon would improve their accuracy. In the thirteenth century, the belief that turquoise would protect its owner from falling was recorded.

FORMATION
Turquoise usually forms in aggregates of submicroscopic crystals that make it opaque. Turquoise crystallizes as veins and nodules near the water table in semiarid to arid environments. Turquoise is often associated with weathered igneous rocks containing primary copper minerals because its chemical stockpiles are rocks that have been leached by rain and ground water. The sky blue color is a result of copper. Iron in turquoise leads to its greener shades. Ochre or brown black veining is common, the result of oxides stains or inclusions of adjacent rock fragments during turquoise's formation. Turquoise is the by product of copper mining.

AREAS FOUND
The best turquoise comes from northeast Iran. Turquoise has been mined there for over 3000 years. Turquoise found in that area is more stable and has a great blue color. Turquoise is also found in China, Mexico, Kazakhstan, Australia, Tibet, Chile, Brazil, the Sinai Peninsula and USA. The US is the major producer of turquoise.

TURQUOISE ESTATE JEWELRY AND ANTIQUE JEWELRY CARE INSTRUCTIONS
Heat may cause turquoise to fracture, shatter or change color. In strong light, turquoise may change color or fade. Ultrasonics chemicals and heat should be avoided. To clean turquoise, use warm soapy water and a gentle cloth. Turquoise may be fade with exposure to perspiration, perfume, hair-spray, cosmetics, lotions and soaps.

EVALUATION:
Color is the best feature of turquoise. The most highly valued turquoise is untreated, dense and robin's egg blue. Turquoise is higher valued if it has an even, intense sky-blue color. Iran generally produces the most valued turquoise. Turquoise with a matrix is less valuable. Of the matrix designs, the spider web is the most valued. A fine polish is possible only when the stones are hard and semi-nonporous. Pale or chalky turquoise is sometimes impregnated with oil, paraffin, liquid plastic, glycerin or sodium silicate to enhance color and shine.

TECHNICAL DATA
Crystal system: triclinic
Cleavage: none
Refractive Index 1.61 - 1.65
Optic: double refracting and AGG
Specific Gravity: 2.60 - 2.85 - usually

HARDNESS
With a hardness of 5 to 6, on the Mohs' Scale, turquoise is considered tough to poor.

OUR TURQUOISE ESTATE JEWELRY AND VINTAGE JEWELRY COLLECTION:


Man Isle coins catalog

Victoria queen of Great Britain (1837-1901)

Elizabeth II queen of Great Britain (from 1952)

Reform 1968Pound=4 crowns Crown=5 shillings Shilling=5 new pence (1968-1975)


1 crown 1974

copper-nickel
100 years since the birth of Winston Churchill
ONE CROWN / WINSTON CHURCHILL CENTENARY 1874-1974
ISLE OF MAN / ELIZABETH II / 1974
Coin value - $5-7


25 pence 1972

copper-nickel
25th Anniversary of Queen's Wedding
TWENTY-FIVE PENCE / SILVER WEDDING ANNIVERSARY / 1947 1972
ISLE OF MAN / ELIZABETH II / 1972
Coin value - $4-5


25 pence 1975

copper-nickel
Manx cat
TWENTY FIVE PENCE / 1975
ISLE OF MAN / ELIZABETH II
Coin value - $7-10


10 new pence 1975

copper-nickel
TEN NEW PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1975
Coin value -


5 new pence 1975

copper-nickel
FIVE NEW PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1975
Coin value -


2 new pence 1975

bronze
TWO NEW PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1975
Coin value - $1-2


1 new penny 1975
bronze
ONE NEW PENNY / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1975
Coin value -


1/2 new penny 1971
bronze
HALF NEW PENNY / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1971
Coin value -

From 1976Pound=4 crowns Crown=5 shillings Shilling=5 pence


2 pounds 2011

bi-metallic - copper-nickel/brass
IV Commonwealth Youth Games
TWO POUNDS / ISLE OF MAN 2011 IV COMMONWEALTH YOUTH GAMES
ISLE OF MAN / ELIZABETH II / 2011
Coin value - $10-15


1 pound 1978

nickel-brass
ONE POUND / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1978
Coin value - $4-5


1 pound 1998

nickel-brass
ONE POUND
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1998
Coin value - $10-12


1 pound 2013

nickel-brass
1 POUND / TINWALD HILL ST JOHN'S CHAPEL
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2013
Coin value - $5-6


50 pence 1976

copper-nickel
FIFTY PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1976
Coin value - $5-6


50 pence 1984

copper-nickel
Tourist Trophy Motorcycle Races
50 / TT
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1984
Coin value - $10-12


50 pence 1985

copper-nickel
50
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1985
Coin value - $8-10


50 pence 1989

copper-nickel
50 / ELLAN VANNIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1989
Coin value - $10-12


50 pence 1997

copper-nickel
50 50
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1997
Coin value - $3-5


50 pence 2001

copper-nickel
50 / CRISTIANNITY IN MANN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2001
Coin value - $40-50


50 pence 2009

copper-nickel
50 / MILNER'S TOWER
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2009
Coin value - $4-5


1 crown 1976

copper-nickel
200th Anniversary of USA Independence
ONE CROWN / BICENTENARY OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1976
Coin value - $4-5


1 crown 1976

copper-nickel
100th Anniversary of the Horse Tram
ONE CROWN / CENTENARY OF THE HORSE TRAM
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1976
Coin value - $4-5


1 crown 1980

copper-nickel
80 years since the birth of Queen-Mother
ONE CROWN / QUEEN ELIZABETT THE QUEEN MOTHER 1900 1980
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1980
Coin value - $4-5


1 crown 1981

copper-nickel
25 years of Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme
1956 ONE CROWN 1981 / DUKE OF EDINBURG AWARD SCHEME
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $6-7


1 crown 1981

copper-nickel
25 years of Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme
1956 ONE CROWN 1981 / DUKE OF EDINBURG AWARD SCHEME
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $6-7


1 crown 1981

copper-nickel
25 years of Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme
1956 ONE CROWN 1981 / DUKE OF EDINBURG AWARD SCHEME
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1981

copper-nickel
25 years of Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme
1956 ONE CROWN 1981 / DUKE OF EDINBURG AWARD SCHEME
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1982

copper-nickel
Word Soccer Championship in Spain
ONE CROWN / XII WORLD CUP SPAIN / 1934 1938 1930 1950 1958 1962 1970 1978 1954 1974
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1982
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1982

copper-nickel
Word Soccer Championship in Spain
ONE CROWN / XII WORLD CUP SPAIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1982
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1982

copper-nickel
Word Soccer Championship in Spain
ONE CROWN / XII WORLD CUP SPAIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1982
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1984

copper-nickel
Olympics Games in Los Angeles
ONE CROWN / TWENTY THIRD OLYMPIAD LOS ANGELES
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1984
Coin value - $6-7


1 crown 1984

copper-nickel
Olympics Games in Los Angeles
ONE CROWN / TWENTY THIRD OLYMPIAD LOS ANGELES
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1984
Coin value - $6-7


1 crown 1990
copper-nickel
Alley cat
1 CROWN
ELIZABETH II ISLE OF MAN 1990
Coin value - $7-8


1 crown 1991
copper-nickel
Norwegian Forest cat
1 CROWN
ELIZABETH II ISLE OF MAN 1991
Coin value - $8-10


1 crown 1994

copper-nickel
Word Soccer Championship in USA
1 CROWN / XV WORLD CUP USA 1994
ELIZABETH II ISLE OF MAN 1994
Coin value - $8-12


1 crown 1998

copper-nickel
700th Anniversary of book "Description of the World" by Marco Polo
1 CROWN / MARCO POLO 1254-1324 / PALACE OF KUBLAI KHAN BEJING
ELIZABETH II ISLE OF MAN 1998
Coin value - $7-8


20 pence 1982
copper-nickel
20
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1982
Coin value - $2-4


20 pence 2007

copper-nickel
20 / CASTLE RUSHEN CLOCK / CLIS REG 1597
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2007
Coin value - $1-2


10 pence 1976

copper-nickel
TEN PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1976
Coin value -


10 pence 1982

copper-nickel
10
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1982
Coin value - $2-3


10 pence 1984

copper-nickel
10
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1984
Coin value - $2-3


10 pence 1992

copper-nickel
10 / QUOCUNQUE / JECERIS STABIT
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1992
Coin value -


10 pence 2001

copper-nickel
10 / ST GERMAN'S CATHEDRAL
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2001
Coin value - $1-2


10 pence 2009

copper-nickel
10 / LIGHTHOUSE CHICKEN ROCK
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2009
Coin value - $1-2


10 pence 2017

copper-nickel
10 PENCE
QUEEN ELIZABETH IIISLE OF MAN / 2017
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 1976

copper-nickel
FIVE PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1976
Coin value -


5 pence 1981

copper-nickel
5
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 1987

copper-nickel
5
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1987
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 1990

copper-nickel
5 / ELANN VANNIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1990
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 1995

copper-nickel
5
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1995
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 1998

copper-nickel
5
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1998
Coin value - $1-2


5 pence 2002

copper-nickel
5 / GAUTS CROSS CARVING
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2002
Coin value - $2-3


5 pence 2009

copper-nickel
5 / TOWER OF REFUGE
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2009
Coin value - $1-2


5 pence 2017

copper-nickel
5 PENCE
QUEEN ELIZABETH IIISLE OF MAN / 2017
Coin value -


2 pence 1976
bronze
TWO PENCE / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1976
Coin value -


2 pence 1980
bronze
2
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1980
Coin value - $1-2


2 pence 1990
bronze
2 / ELANN VANNIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1990
Coin value - $1-2


2 pence 1997
copper plated steel
2
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1997
Coin value - $1-2


2 pence 2002
copper plated steel
2 / CLASHT ROOIN O HIARN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2002
Coin value -


2 pence 2009

copper plated steel
2 / ALBERT TOWER
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2009
Coin value -


1 penny 1979
bronze
ONE PENNY / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1979
Coin value -


1 penny 1981
bronze
1
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1981
Coin value - $5-8


1 penny 1995
bronze
1 / ELANN VANNIN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1995
Coin value -


1 penny 1997
copper plated steel
1
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1997
Coin value -


1 penny 1998
copper plated steel
1
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 1998
Coin value -


1 penny 2000
copper plated steel
1 / ANGLENT KEEILS OF MANN
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2000
Coin value -


1 penny 2009
copper plated steel
1 / SANTON WAR MEMORIAL
ISLE OF MAN ELIZABETH II / 2000
Coin value -


1/2 penny 1976
bronze
circulating coinage
HALF PENNY / ISLE OF MAN
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1976
Coin value -


1/2 penny 1981
bronze
commemorative coin
FAO
HALF PENNY / ISLE OF MAN / FAO / FOOD FOR ALL
ELIZABETH THE SECOND / 1991
Coin value - $2-3


How to Clean Antique Copper and Bronze

Question: I just came into proud possession of some nearly 100 year old arts and crafts copper candlesticks and various copper and bronze bowls. Of course, I do NOT want to lose any of the original patina that has rendered over time, but the pieces are a bit dull and could, I feel, use appropriate cleaning and preservation. Is there a product(s) designed for non-destructive beautification of these old metal objects?

Antique metals develop a certain look over time due to patina and oxidization. With arts and crafts metals, they often began as an “antique” look as opposed to a bright, shiny metal when they were originally created. It was the style in those times, to have pieces that were tarnished and “old” looking. As time has passed, the color may have changed slightly, such as getting darker, but it would be detrimental to the value to try to alter the color in any way. Below is a simple cleaning method to remove dust and dirt that will not damage the look of the piece and should not affect the value. It is not recommended that you put any special products on the piece as it could alter it and decrease the value. For preservation of old metal pieces, it is always best to consult with a professional who can look at the individual pieces to determine how they may react.


Copper in Art

Copper and its alloys have been used throughout the ages for artistic pursuits. Due to the metal's unique physical properties, it can be manipulated into various shapes, designs and structures of all sizes. And, it looks good. Today, copper fixtures and decorative copper finishes are an exciting trend in home décor and can be found on everything from small appliances to refrigerators, countertops, fireplace surrounds and more.

While copper is known for its rich red-gold hue, it doesn't often appear that way in nature. Instead, it can be found masquerading in shades of blue, green, red and turquoise. Thousands of years ago, the Egyptians learned that certain minerals contained valuable deposits of copper. These minerals include malachite (green), azurite (blue), cuprite (red) and turquoise (blue-green).

Famous artworks like Auguste Rodin's The Thinker were cast in bronze using the same techniques developed by the Egyptians. Thousands of years later, sculptors still rely on this process, called the "lost wax" method, to produce works of art.

The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was built in the third century BC from bronze reclaimed from confiscated war implements. The bronze plates covered an iron frame, much like the Statue of Liberty (which is about the same size at 111 feet). The Colossus was destroyed by an earthquake some 50 years later, and the bronze was gathered up and sold as scrap - another early example of recycling copper metals.

The Statue of Liberty contains 160,000 pounds of copper. It came from the Visnes copper mines on Karmoy Island near Stavanger, Norway, and was fabricated by French artisans. The Lady's pure copper sheets are 3/32-inch thick. Her natural, green patina is about 0.005-inches thick and has protected her from corrosion since 1886.

A showcase motorcycle named "Spirit of Liberty," better known as the "Copper Chopper," was built from scrap metal removed from the Statue of Liberty during the restoration for its centennial in 1986.

Copper-based pigments were an important ingredient in ancient paints, and the metal itself was frequently employed as a "canvas" on which Renaissance artists painted. Copper also served as an engraving plate for etchings and prints by master artists such as Rembrandt. As an ingredient in paint, natural copper ores such as azurite (blue) and malachite (green), add a depth and dimensionality to paintings that cannot be duplicated by man-made substitutes. As for copper's use as a canvas, there was virtually nothing else available to artists in pre-technological times that approached its smoothness and durability.

Around the time of the U.S. Revolution paint pigments were generally not available. Some people made a greenish pigment by suspending copper metal in a container over a pool of vinegar. This would result in a patina or copper salt to form on the surface of the copper which could then be scraped off and used, ground up, and used in paint to produce a paint color we call verdigris.

Beginning in the early 16th century, European artists often painted on sheets of copper. Those artists include some of the most famous painters of all time: Leonardo da Vinci, Jan Brueghel, El Greco and Rembrandt. They found that copper provided a smooth, durable surface that held the paint very well and allowed for marvelous effects.


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